Transfection and transduction are two types of gene transferring methods used in molecular biology. Transduction is the process of using a virus to mediate the delivery of DNA fragments or plasmids into a cell, either prokaryotic or eukaryotic. It depends on the competence of the bacteria. All rights reserved. Dr.Samanthi Udayangani holds a B.Sc. If it occurs naturally, it increases the potential of causing disease more often. For example, bacteriophage introduce DNA into bacteria, and lentiviruses or adenoviruses into human cells. Mutation as a source of variation. Below infographic presents the difference between transformation and transduction as a side by side comparison. These methods work similarly to the those outlined for bacterial transformation, as they all are designed to make the cell membrane more permeable. In order to perform a transduction, you need a cell-line of interest and a virus that infects that cell line. Despite the challenges to overcome, viral transduction is an excellent way to perform stable, long term transformations and transfections in the lab environment. These methods have their pros and cons, but ultimately will depend on the resources available and the preference of the researcher. Unlike transformation, transduction requires a virus as an agent to carry DNA fragment from donor to recipient cell. One of the pillars of modern day molecular biology uses techniques to manipulate DNA sequences (such as plasmids, knockout gene constructs, etc.) and introduce them into a host cell to test their effects. CONJUGATION, TRANSFORMATION, AND TRANSDUCTION [edit | edit source]. The key difference between transformation and transduction is that transformation is a mechanism which alters the genetic material of bacteria by direct uptake of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane and incorporation of it into the genome while transduction is the injection of foreign DNA by a bacteriophage virus into the host bacterium. One of the pillars of modern day molecular biology uses techniques to manipulate DNA sequences (such as plasmids, knockout gene constructs, etc.) 3. Similar to conjugation, these two mechanisms transfer DNA in one direction, and recombination occurs between alleles in homologous DNA regions. The process is relatively simple; scientists make the membranes of bacterial cells permeable to DNA either through chemical means or via electrical stimulation. Using these modified viruses, researchers incorporate foreign DNA into the host genome (such as using lentiviruses or bacteriophage) or transiently express desired recombinant nucleic acids (such as using adenoviruses). The transformed cells then can be selected from the untransformed cells by inclusion of an antibiotic to kill off the untransformed cells. Transduction requires the presence of a transporting agent (bacteriophage) to carry genetic material from the donor cell to the recipient. Transduction, transformation, conjugation, transposable elements. Fred Griffith, a medical officer in the British Ministry of Health in London, discovered the process of transformation in 1928. Furthermore, in transformation, extracellular DNA fragments are acquired. Transformation is the process of direct uptake of exogenous DNA from the surrounding via cell wall and membrane into the bacterial cell and incorporation to its genome. and introduce them into a host cell to test their effects. The method by which they do so is different from bacteria, though, instead using cationic lipids, micelles, lasers, or even particle guns. Bacteriophages attach to the surface receptors of the bacteria and directly inject the viral DNA into the bacteria. Similarities Between Transformation and Transduction On the other hand, transduction is the process by which a virus transfers genetic material from one bacterium to another. Transformation Conjugation is similar to transduction in that DNA is moved directly from one bacterial cell to another. Mutations. These viruses are bacteria-infecting viruses or bacteriophages. 4. 1. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Copyright © 2010-2018 Difference Between. Email. “Transduction.” An Introduction to Genetic Analysis. in Molecular and Applied Microbiology, and PhD in Applied Microbiology. Transfection is a type of plasmid transformation, typically that of animal cells, instead of bacteria. Side by Side Comparison – Transformation vs Transduction in Tabular Form Hence this is a significant difference between transformation and transduction. Plasmid transformation is used to describe the (non-viral) horizontal gene transfer of plasmids between bacteria. Those unfamiliar with the field may be wondering “what is plasmid transduction?” Or have heard the terms transformation, transfection, and transduction, but are uncertain as to the differences and similarities between these techniques. Transformation can be done artificially; sometimes it even occurs naturally. 2. “Boundless Microbiology.” Lumen, Available here. Transduction does not depend on the competence of the bacteria. Additionally, a further difference between transformation and transduction is that a plasmid transfer is possible in transformation while it is not likely to occur in transduction. It is the mechanism by which bacteria uptake DNA fragments from the environment and incorporate it into their chromosomes. Like all viruses, these bacteriophages have a core of DNA or RNA surrounded by a coat of protein. In the process, many replicons of the plasmid will be created and passed to daughter cells. Scientists can modify the viral nucleic acids to contain specific DNA sequences of interest. Terms of Use and Privacy Policy: Legal. In the lytic cycle, the viral phage penetrates a host cell, destroys the host’s chromosome and replicates itself within the host cell. 1. Transduction occurs via lytic and lysogenic cycle. These cells, now termed ‘competent cells,’ will readily uptake plasmid DNA from their surroundings. 6. Transduction is a useful tool in genetic engineering when introducing a foreign gene into bacteria. Difference Between Direct Lifecycle and Indirect Lifecycle, Difference Between Pasteurization and Sterilization, Difference Between Human Brain and Animal Brain, Difference Between Hypotonic and Hypertonic, Similarities Between Transformation and Transduction, Side by Side Comparison – Transformation vs Transduction in Tabular Form, Difference Between Coronavirus and Cold Symptoms, Difference Between Coronavirus and Influenza, Difference Between Coronavirus and Covid 19, Difference Between Capillary Action and Transpiration Pull, Difference Between Proposal and Recommendation, Difference Between Particle Model of Matter and Kinetic Molecular Theory, Difference Between Methylacetylene and Acetylene, Difference Between Nicotinamide and Nicotinamide Riboside, Difference Between Bleaching Action of SO2 and Cl2, Difference Between Collagen Elastin and Reticular Fibers, Difference Between Oxalic Acid and Acetic Acid, Transformation and transduction are two mechanisms involved in. On the other hand, transduction is the process of injecting viral DNA into bacterial cells by the bacteriophages. 2. The competence depends on variable properties among bacterial species. Above these, another significant difference between transformation and transduction is that the transformation is susceptible to DNAase while transduction is DNAase resistant. After a successful transformation, the recipient cell (transformant) gains some characteristics which were not present previously within it. Bacteria have genes outside of the bacterial chromosome structure. After integration, the host cell undergoes DNA replication and binary fission, resulting in copies of the host cell with prophages. This technique harnesses the natural function of viruses to inject DNA into the infected host, but with a twist. Transformation is the process by which a DNA molecule is taken up from the external environment and incorporated into … Finally, these prophages will excuse themselves from hosts’ chromosomes and go to the lytic cycle. This method can be more difficult than the other methods discussed here, since the virus must be grown and maintained in culture, sometimes needs to be modified to be non-infectious to humans, and the DNA of interest must be packaged into the viral particle before infection of new host cells can occur. In nature, this genetic material often comes from adjacent lysed bacteria and can include plasmid DNA or fragmented DNA released into the environment. In order to carry out a successful transformation, the bacterium should be competent enough. Google Classroom Facebook Twitter. But, transduction is done by a bacteriophage. So,this is the key difference between transformation and transduction. Mutagens and carcinogens. Transfection, transformation, and transduction are the three types of methods through which foreign DNA is incorporated into host cells. Therefore, we can consider this too as a difference between transformation and transduction.

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