Lack of test specificity is usually not a problem with antisera now available, rather the concern is more with whether or not antisera have suitable broad specificity to detect all strains of a given virus. Beginning in the 1980s, extensive testing and, NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, Preparing a policy for seed certification, Recognized nodal agency for formulating legislation on aquatic animal health certification and quarantine, National Certification Committee on Aquatic Wild and Bred Varieties (NCCA-WBV), Certification of genetically improved varieties, Certifies the hatchery management and production process, food safety, and traceability, Certifies and distributes improved tilapia strains, Guidelines and codes developed on aquaculture farm standardization, Chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid (CChMVd), Grapevine yellow speckle viroids 1, 2 (GYSVd-1, -2), Iresine viroid (IrVd) Mexican papita viroid (MPVd). Value addition is a key component in making the ginger market attractive and profitable. Nihar Ranjan Chattopadhyay, in Induced Fish Breeding, 2017. H.J.S. Over the years, India has lost its market to China and Indonesia, as is the case in the case of cardamom, where India lost the market to Guatemala. At times, the farmer might lose up to 80% of the crop toward harvest time. Ginger breeding must focus especially on the former, while ginger agronomy should focus on the latter. ELISA tests are an integral part of current seed potato certification programs to control potato viruses in North America and will remain so for the near future. In 2009, the National Plant Protection Organization declared PSTVd eradicated and absent from Argentina (EPPO, 2009). Once seed has been certified, it qualifies for the official “blue” … CABI removed Chile from its most recent PSTVd global distribution list because the isolate differed in five positions from the type strain of PSTVd in potato and there are no records of PSTVd detection in potato in Chile during official surveys, or in the national seed potato certification program (CABI, 2015b). Ling and Zhang (2009) reported the first record of commercial tomatoes in Mexico naturally infected with TCDVd. Inadequately trained staff and poor infrastructure led to many SSCAs not being able to meet the growing certification demand, especially for nonhybrid crops, such as rice. Edward V. Podleckis, in Viroids and Satellites, 2017. An integral approach to control the most serious problem in ginger cultivation—the prevalence of rhizome rot. Indexing to define the nature and severity of virus problems may indeed be a prescription requirement. Further, as the interests of science and society become increasingly linked, we can expect qualitative and quantitative changes in the insecticides used to control vectors and an increased dialogue over the appropriateness of selected genetic manipulations to enhance virus resistance in cultivars and germplasm. A sustainable ginger economy is possible only when these risks are minimized. These infections have little or no effect on crop production but may indirectly affect the grower’s income by restricting export opportunities due to existing phytosanitary measures. Certification services are available for field crops, turf grasses, vegetables, fruits, vegetatively propagated species, woody plants and forbs. This could be further complicated by bacterial, fungal, and insect attack on the ginger plant. Table 8.5. No clear trend was evident in ß-pinene contents. At this level, hand roguing of seed crops can be economic, particularly if it safeguards the field for future use in growing seed crops. Seed certification is a quality assurance system whereby seed intended for marketing is subject to official control and inspection. Seed certification maintains a pedigree on seed of a specific variety. There are ∼120 national seed testing laboratories and 25 state, Lipids, Terpenoids, and Related Substances, Theodore T. Kozlowski, Stephen G. Pallardy, in, Physiology of Woody Plants (Second Edition). As a member of the EU, Ireland is obliged to implement the EU Seeds Directives and Regulations. Registers Plant Breeders. It is possible that DNA-based tests will replace ELISA, at least in part. A proper fish seed certification process does not exist in many countries in the region. Seed certification efforts eradicated PSTVd from seed potato production in western Canada (De Boer et al., 2002). These schemes have been very successful at reducing the incidence of some diseases such as bunt or stinking smut in cereals. Each EU directive must be transposed into national law. Von Rudloff (1972, 1975) showed that large seasonal changes in terpenes of white spruce and blue spruce occurred only in the buds and young leaves after bud burst and continued until mid-summer. Theodore T. Kozlowski, Stephen G. Pallardy, in Physiology of Woody Plants (Second Edition), 1997. Thus, the ginger crop industry is influenced by the risk factors associated with yield and seasonal price fluctuations, though these factors seem unrelated on a long-term basis. A proper fish seed certification process does not exist in many countries in the region. PSTVd was also found in potato clones and true potato seed maintained at the International Potato Center in Lima, Peru (Peiman and Xie, 2006; Salazar et al., 1983). Estimated yield losses in North America were approximately 1%, low as a percentage but still significant in absolute terms. PSTVd also causes occasional disease outbreaks in tomato (e.g., Puchta et al., 1990). Ergot severity can be closely correlated with ingress of alternative grass hosts in cereal fields (Mantle et al.,  1977). Only small amounts of these compounds were present in twigs and buds. A country-by-country summary of the geographical distribution of viroids in the Americas is presented in Table 43.1. Beginning in the 1980s, extensive testing and seed certification programs in many countries began to eliminate (or at least substantially reduce) the impact of PSTVd on potato production. The use of a panel of monoclonals to simultaneously detect and strain-type PVY (PVYO and PVYN) has been suggested as another approach (McDonald et al., 1994).

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